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Did you know that muscle strength and life expectancy are linked?

When the Ruiz study came out in 2008 it got me really excited.

For years I found that adjusting people made them stronger and also made them healthier, now there was good evidence that stronger people lived longer.

AND, being weak increases your chance of morbidity and mortality. ( ie disease and death)
This has been verified in over 60 studies (reference link)

These studies firmly establish the link between muscle weakness, increased chance of diseases like heart disease, diabetes, cancer and early death.

Some measure handgrip strength, others use the large axial and limb muscles but all reach basically the same conclusion. The stronger you are, the longer you live and the less disability you suffer. This effect is independent of age, fitness, exercise and BMI (body weight).

At SpineLab we can make patients stronger instantly, without exercise: that’s the power of the adjustment.

So rather than treating you for the pain in your neck or back your plan of care is aimed at building a stronger, healthier you and keeping your whole family all that way.

So Stay Strong

 

 

Dr Carl

References

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Blair, S. N. (1996). Influences of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Other Precursors on Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality in Men and Women. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association276(3), 205. http://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1996.03540030039029

Lee, C. D., Blair, S. N., & Jackson, a S. (1999). Cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition69(3), 373–80. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10075319

Rantanen, T., Harris, T., Leveille, S. G., Visser, M., Foley, D., Masaki, K., & Guralnik, J. M. (2000). Muscle strength and body mass index as long-term predictors of mortality in initially healthy men. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences55(3), M168–M173. http://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/55.3.M168

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Rantanen, T., Volpato, S., Luigi Ferrucci, M., Eino Heikkinen, M., Fried, L. P., & Guralnik, J. M. (2003). Handgrip Strength and Cause-Specific and Total Mortality in Older Disabled Women: Exploring the Mechanism. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society51(5), 636–641. http://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0579.2003.00207.x

FitzGerald, S. J., Barlow, C. E., Kampert, J. B., Morrow, J. R., Jackson, A. W., & Blair, S. N. (2004). Muscular Fitness and All-Cause Mortality: Prospective Observations. Journal of Physical Activity and Health1(1), 7–18. http://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.1.1.7

Willardson, J. M., & Tudor-Locke, C. (2005). Survival of the Strongest: A Brief Review Examining the Association Between Muscular Fitness and Mortality. Strength and Conditioning Journal27(3), 80–85. http://doi.org/10.1519/1533-4295(2005)027[0080:SOTSAB]2.0.CO;2

Newman, A. B., Kupelian, V., Visser, M., Simonsick, E. M., Goodpaster, B. H., Kritchevsky, S. B., … Harris, T. B. (2006). Strength, but not muscle mass, is associated with mortality in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study cohort. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci61(1), 72–77. http://doi.org/61/1/72 [pii]

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Swallow, E. B., Reyes, D., Hopkinson, N. S., Man, W. D.-C., Porcher, R., Cetti, E. J., … Polkey, M. I. (2007). Quadriceps strength predicts mortality in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax62(2), 115–120. http://doi.org/10.1136/thx.2006.062026

Ali, N. A., O’Brien, J. M., Hoffmann, S. P., Phillips, G., Garland, A., Finley, J. C. W., … Marsh, C. B. (2008). Acquired weakness, handgrip strength, and mortality in critically III patients. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine178(3), 261–268. http://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200712-1829OC

Ruiz, J. R., Sui, X., Lobelo, F., Morrow, J. R., Jackson, A. W., Sjostrom, M., & Blair, S. N. (2008). Association between muscular strength and mortality in men: prospective cohort study. Bmj337(jul01 2), a439–a439. http://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.a439

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Ruiz, J. R., Sui, X., Lobelo, F., Lee, D. C., Morrow, J. R., Jackson, A. W., … Blair, S. N. (2009). Muscular strength and adiposity as predictors of adulthood cancer mortality in men. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention18(5), 1468–1476. http://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-1075

Xue, Q. L., Beamer, B. A., Chaves, P. H. M., Guralnik, J. M., & Fried, L. P. (2010). Heterogeneity in rate of decline in grip, hip, and knee strength and the risk of all-cause mortality: The women’s health and aging study II. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society58(11), 2076–2084. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03154.x

Phillips, A. C., Der, G., & Carroll, D. (2010). Self-reported health, self-reported fitness, and all-cause mortality: Prospective cohort study. British Journal of Health Psychology15(2), 337–346. http://doi.org/10.1348/135910709X466180

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Han, S. S., Kim, K. W., Kim, K.-I., Na, K. Y., Chae, D.-W., Kim, S., & Chin, H. J. (2010). Lean Mass Index: A Better Predictor of Mortality than Body Mass Index in Elderly Asians. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society58(2), 312–317. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2009.02672.x

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Artero, E. G., Lee, D., Lavie, C. J., España-Romero, V., Sui, X., Church, T. S., & Blair, S. N. (2012). Effects of Muscular Strength on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Prognosis. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention32(6), 351–358. http://doi.org/10.1097/HCR.0b013e3182642688

Masunari, N., Fujiwara, S., Kasagi, F., Takahashi, I., Yamada, M., & Nakamura, T. (2012). Height loss starting in middle age predicts increased mortality in the elderly. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research27(1), 138–145. http://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.513

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Schaap, L. A., Koster, A., & Visser, M. (2013). Adiposity, muscle mass, and muscle strength in relation to functional decline in older persons. Epidemiologic Reviews35(1), 51–65. http://doi.org/10.1093/epirev/mxs006

Cheung, C. L., Nguyen, U. S. D. T., Au, E., Tan, K. C. B., & Kung, A. W. C. (2013). Association of handgrip strength with chronic diseases and multimorbidity: A cross-sectional study. Age35(3), 929–941. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-012-9385-y

Puhan, M. A., Siebeling, L., Zoller, M., Muggensturm, P., & Riet, G. Ter. (2013). Simple functional performance tests and mortality in COPD. European Respiratory Journal42(4), 956–963. http://doi.org/10.1183/09031936.00131612

Isaia, G., Greppi, F., Pastorino, A., Bersano, E. M., Rrodhe, S., Ricauda, N. A., … Zanocchi, M. (2013). Predictive effects of muscle strength after hospitalization in old patients. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research25(6), 633–636. http://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-013-0162-2

Savino, E., Martini, E., Lauretani, F., Pioli, G., Zagatti, A. M., Frondini, C., … Volpato, S. (2013). Handgrip strength predicts persistent walking recovery after hip fracture surgery. American Journal of Medicine126(12). http://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2013.04.017

Chuang, S. Y., Chang, H. Y., Lee, M. S., Chia-Yu Chen, R., & Pan, W. H. (2014). Skeletal muscle mass and risk of death in an elderly population. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases24(7), 784–791. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2013.11.010

de Brito, L. B. B., Ricardo, D. R., de Araújo, D. S. M. S., Ramos, P. S., Myers, J., & de Araújo, C. G. S. (2014). Ability to sit and rise from the floor as a predictor of all-cause mortality. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology21(7), 892–898. http://doi.org/10.1177/2047487312471759

Hermans, G., Van Mechelen, H., Clerckx, B., Vanhullebusch, T., Mesotten, D., Wilmer, A., … Van Den Berghe, G. (2014). Acute outcomes and 1-year mortality of intensive care unit-acquired weakness: A cohort study and propensity-matched analysis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine190(4), 410–420. http://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201312-2257OC

Matos, C. M., Silva, L. F., Santana, L. D., Santos, L. S., Protásio, B. M., Rocha, M. T., … Lopes, A. A. (2014). Handgrip strength at baseline and mortality risk in a cohort of women and men on hemodialysis: A 4-year study. Journal of Renal Nutrition24(3), 157–162. http://doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2013.12.005

Timpka, S., Petersson, I. F., Zhou, C., & Englund, M. (2014). Muscle strength in adolescent men and risk of cardiovascular disease events and mortality in middle age: a prospective cohort study. BMC Medicine12(1), 62. http://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-12-62

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Legrand, D., Vaes, B., Matheï, C., Adriaensen, W., Van Pottelbergh, G., & Degryse, J. M. (2014). Muscle strength and physical performance as predictors of mortality, hospitalization, and disability in the oldest old. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society62(6), 1030–1038. http://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.12840

Donoghue, O. A., Savva, G. M., Cronin, H., Kenny, R. A., & Horgan, N. F. (2014). Using timed up and go and usual gait speed to predict incident disability in daily activities among community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation95(10), 1954–1961. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2014.06.008

Bohannon, R. W., & Magasi, S. (2015). Identification of dynapenia in older adults through the use of grip strength t-scores. Muscle and Nerve51(1), 102–105. http://doi.org/10.1002/mus.24264

Dodds, R., & Sayer, A. A. (2015). Sarcopenia and frailty: new challenges for clinical practice. Clinical Medicine15(Suppl_6), s88–s91. http://doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.15-6-s88

Sayer, A. A., & Kirkwood, T. B. L. (2015). Grip strength and mortality: A biomarker of ageing? The Lancet386(9990), 226–227. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62349-7

Guadalupe-Grau, A., Carnicero, J. A., Gómez-Cabello, A., Avila, G. G., Humanes, S., Alegre, L. M., … García-García, F. J. (2015). Association of regional muscle strength with mortality and hospitalisation in older people. Age and Ageing44(5), 790–795. http://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afv080

Rijk, J. M., Roos, P. R., Deckx, L., van den Akker, M., & Buntinx, F. (2015). Prognostic value of handgrip strength in people aged 60 years and older: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, n/a-n/a. http://doi.org/10.1111/ggi.12508

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Leong, D. P., Teo, K. K., Rangarajan, S., Lopez-Jaramillo, P., Avezum, A., Orlandini, A., … Yusuf, S. (2015). Prognostic value of grip strength: Findings from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. The Lancet386(9990), 266–273. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62000-6

Martien, S., Delecluse, C., Boen, F., Seghers, J., Pelssers, J., Van Hoecke, A. S., & Van Roie, E. (2015). Is knee extension strength a better predictor of functional performance than handgrip strength among older adults in three different settings? Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics60(2), 252–258. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2014.11.010

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Martín-Ponce, E., Hernández-Betancor, I., González-Reimers, E., Hernández-Luis, R., Martínez-Riera, A., & Santolaria, F. (2015). Prognostic value of physical function tests: hand grip strength and six-minute walking test in elderly hospitalized patients. Scientific Reports4(1), 7530. http://doi.org/10.1038/srep07530

Lino, V. T. S., Rodrigues, N. C. P., O’Dwyer, G., Andrade, M. K. D. N., Mattos, I. E., & Portela, M. C. (2016). Handgrip strength and factors associated in poor elderly assisted at a primary care unit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PLoS ONE11(11). http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166373

Kraschnewski, J. L., Sciamanna, C. N., Poger, J. M., Rovniak, L. S., Lehman, E. B., Cooper, A. B., … Ciccolo, J. T. (2016). Is strength training associated with mortality benefits? A 15 year cohort study of US older adults. Preventive Medicine87, 121–127. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.02.038

Ding, L., & Yang, F. (2016). Muscle weakness is related to slip-initiated falls among community-dwelling older adults. Journal of Biomechanics49(2), 238–243. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.12.009

McLeod, M., Breen, L., Hamilton, D. L., & Philp, A. (2016). Live strong and prosper: the importance of skeletal muscle strength for healthy ageing. Biogerontology17(3), 497–510. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10522-015-9631-7

Fragala, M. S., Alley, D. E., Shardell, M. D., Harris, T. B., McLean, R. R., Kiel, D. P., … Kenny, A. M. (2016). Comparison of Handgrip and Leg Extension Strength in Predicting Slow Gait Speed in Older Adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society64(1), 144–150. http://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.13871

Strand, B. H., Cooper, R., Bergland, A., Jørgensen, L., Schirmer, H., Skirbekk, V., & Emaus, N. (2016). The association of grip strength from midlife onwards with all-cause and cause-specific mortality over 17 years of follow-up in the Tromsø Study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health70(12), 1214–1221. http://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2015-206776

Rossi, A. P., Fantin, F., Caliari, C., Zoico, E., Mazzali, G., Zanardo, M., … Zamboni, M. (2016). Dynapenic abdominal obesity as predictor of mortality and disability worsening in older adults: A 10-year prospective study. Clinical Nutrition35(1), 199–204. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2015.02.005

Leong, D. P., Teo, K. K., Rangarajan, S., Kutty, V. R., Lanas, F., Hui, C., … Yusuf, S. (2016). Reference ranges of handgrip strength from 125,462 healthy adults in 21 countries: a prospective urban rural epidemiologic (PURE) study. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle7(5), 535–546. http://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12112

Gaikwad, N. R., Gupta, S. J., Samarth, A. R., & Sankalecha, T. H. (2016). Handgrip dynamometry: A surrogate marker of malnutrition to predict the prognosis in alcoholic liver disease. Annals of Gastroenterology29(4), 509–514. http://doi.org/10.20524/aog.2016.0049

Celis-Morales, C. A., Lyall, D. M., Anderson, J., Iliodromiti, S., Fan, Y., Ntuk, U. E., … Gill, J. M. R. (2017). The association between physical activity and risk of mortality is modulated by grip strength and cardiorespiratory fitness: Evidence from 498 135 UK-Biobank participants. European Heart Journal38(2), 116–122. http://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehw249

Menant, J. C., Weber, F., Lo, J., Sturnieks, D. L., Close, J. C., Sachdev, P. S., … Lord, S. R. (2017). Strength measures are better than muscle mass measures in predicting health-related outcomes in older people: time to abandon the term sarcopenia? Osteoporosis International28(1), 59–70. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-016-3691-7

Celis-Morales CA, Welsh P, Lyall DM et al(2018) Associations of grip strength with cardiovascular, respiratory, and cancer outcomes and all cause mortality: prospective cohort study of half a million UK Biobank participants https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29739772